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पुराण

See also:  पुराणा , पुरातन
A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
पुराण  mfn. amf( or )n. belonging to ancient or olden times, ancient, old (also = withered, worn out, opp. to नूतन, नव), [RV.] &c. &c.
पुराण  n. m. a कर्ष or measure of silver (= 16 पणs of cowries), [Mn. viii, 136] (also n., [L.])
पुराण  m. m.N. of a ऋषि, [Kāṭh.]
पुराण  m. m. pl. the ancients, [MW.]
पुराण  n. n. a thing or event of the past, an ancient tale or legend, old traditional history, [AV.] &c. &c.
पञ्च-लक्षण   N. of a class of sacred works (supposed to have been compiled by the poet व्यास and to treat of 5 topics [cf.]; the chief पुराणs are 18, grouped in 3 divisions: viz. 1. राजस exalting ब्रह्मा [e.g. the ब्रह्म, ब्रह्माण्ड, ब्रह्मवैवर्त, मार्कण्डेय, भविष्य, वामन]; 2. सात्त्विक exalting विष्णु [e.g. the विष्णु, भागवत, नारदीय, गरुड, पद्म, वराह]; 3. तामस exalting शिव [e.g. the शिव, लिङ्ग, स्कन्द, अग्नि or in place of it the वायु, मत्स्य, कूर्म]; by some the are divided into 4, and by others into 6 groups; cf.[IW. 509 &c.])
N. of wk. (containing an index of the contents of a number of and some other works.)
पुराण   bपुरातन See p.635.

पुराण [purāṇa] a.  a. (-णा,
-णी  f. f.) [पुरा नवम् Nir.]
Old, ancient, belonging to olden times; पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वं न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् [M.1.2;] पुराणपत्रापगमादनन्तरम् [R.3.7]
Aged, primeval; गृध्रराजः पुराणोऽसौ श्वशुरस्य सखा मम [Rām.3.53.5;] अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणः [Bg.2.2.]
Decayed, worn out.
णम् A past event or occurrence.
tale of the past, legend, ancient or legendary history.
 N. N. of certain well-known sacred works; these are 18; these are supposed to have been composed by Vyāsa, and contain the whole body of Hindu mythology. A Purāṇa treats of five topics (or लक्षणानि), and is hence often called पञ्चलक्षण; सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च । वंशानुचरितं चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ॥ For the names of the 18 Purāṇas see under अष्टादशन्.
-णः   A coin equal to 8 cowries; ते षोडश स्याद् धरणं पुराणश्चैव राजतः [Ms.8.136.] -Comp.
-अन्तः   an epithet of Yama.-उक्त a. enjoined by or laid down in the Purāṇas.
-कल्पः = पुराकल्प   q. v.
गः an epithet of Brahman.
a reciter or reader of the Purāṇas.
पुरुषः an epithet of Viṣṇu.
an old man; यद् वदन्ति चपलेत्यपवादं तन्न दूषणमहो चपलायाः । दोष एष जलधेः पितुरस्या यत् पुराणपुरुषाय ददौ ताम् Subhāṣ.; (where both senses are intended). -प्रोक्तa. proclaimed by ancient sages; [P.IV.3.15.]
-विद्या, -वेदः   knowledge of the past events.

Shabda-Sagara | sa  en |   | 
पुराण   r. 1st cl. (पुराण्यति) Legendary tale. यक् पर० सक० सेट् .
पुराण  n.  (-णं) A Purāṇa or sacred poetical work, supposed to be compiled or composed by the poet VYĀSA; and comprising the whole body of Hindu theology: each Purāṇa should treat of five topics especially; the creation, the destruction and renovation of worlds; the genealogy of gods and heroes; the reigns of the Manus, and the transaction of their descendants: but great variety prevails in this respect and few contain historical or genealogical matter. There are eighteen acknowledged Purāṇas.
1. BRAHMA. 2. Padma, or the lotus.
3. Brahmāṇḍa, or the egg of BRAHMĀ. 4. Āgneya, or Agni, fire.
5. VAISHNAVA, or of VISHṆU.
6. Garu- da.
7. Brahmavaivarta, or transformations of BRAHMĀ, that is of KRISHṆA, identified with the Supreme.
8. SAIVA, or of ŚIVA.
9. Linga.
10. NĀRADĪYA.
11. SKANDA.
12. MĀRKAṆḌEYA, so called from a Muni of that name.
13. Bhavishyat, or prophetic.
14. Matsya, or the fish.
15. Varāha, or boar.
16. Kaurma, or of the Kurma or tortoise.
17. Vāmana, or dwarf.
18. Bhāgavat, or life of KRISHṆA, which last is by some considered as a spurious and modern work: the Brahmavaivarta is also of very modern origin. The Purāṇas ars reckoned to contain four hundred thousand stanzas: there are also eighteen Upapurāṇas or similar poems of inferior sanctity, and different appellations: the whole constitute the popular or poetical creed of the Hindus, and some of them or particular parts of them, are very generally read, and studied.
 m.  (-णः) A karsha or measure of silver equal to sixteen Panas of Cowries.
 mfn.  (-णः-णा or -णी-णं) Old, ancient.
E. पुरा old, and द्यु aff. or पुरा the same, णी to get or be, and aff.

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
A Purán̤ or sacred and poetical work. There are eighteen. They comprise the whole body of Hindú theology. Each should treat of five topics especially; the creation, the destruction, and the renovation of worlds, the genealogy of gods and heroes, the reigns of the Manus, and the transactions of their descendants. They are called ब्रह्म, पद्म, विष्णु, शिव, लिंग, गरुड, नारद, भागवत, अग्नि, स्कंद, भविष्य, ब्रह्मवैवर्त्त, मार्कंडेय, वामन, वाराह, मत्स्य, कूर्म. पु0 सोडणें-लावणें-मांडणें-काढणें-चालविणें To begin a long and tiresome story. पुराणांतलीं वांगीं पुराणांत राहिलीं Said when a person does not observe his own prescriptions,--of one mighty in talk, slack and lagging in act.
purāṇa a S pop. पुराणा a Old or ancient.

पुराण n.  काठकसंहिता में निर्दिष्ट एक ऋषि का नाम [का.सं.३९.७]
पुराण II. n.  कुशिककुल का मंत्रकार । इसे ‘पूरण’ नामान्तर भी प्राप्त था ।

Puranic Encyclopaedia  | en  en |   | 
PURĀṆA   
1) General information.
The Amarakośa describes a Purāṇa thus: Sargaśca pratisargaśca Vaṁśo manvantarāṇi ca / Vaṁśānucaritaṁ cāpi Purāṇam pañcalakṣaṇam // According to this definition, Purāṇa is one which describes Sarga, Pratisarga, Vaṁśa, Manvantara and Vaṁśānucarita. Among these Sarga and Pratisarga are natural creation and renovation (Cosmogony). Vaṁśa means history of sages and patriarchs. By Manvantara is meant the period of different Manus. Vaṁśānucarita means Genealogy of kings. In the Purāṇas which are current now some of these five divisions are wanting. Statements about Purāṇas are found even in the Brāhmaṇas. Therefore it is to be surmised that Purāṇas existed even before historic times. Mahābhārata has used the term Purāṇa to mean stories about devas and siddhas. The Upaniṣads say that Purāṇas are itihāsas and as such constitute the fifth Veda. Smṛti says that Purāṇas are commentaries on Vedas. From all these statements it can be gathered that Purāṇas have a hoary past. The great Sanskrit scholar Raṅgācārya has defined Purāṇa as Purā nava (Purā=old; nava =new) meaning things which are as good as new though existing from olden times. Though there are large portions of wide imagination dealing with the human side in the Purāṇas many truths about the universe can be grasped from them. All the Purāṇas contain praises of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara. In most of the Purāṇas of old, new additions and interpolations are seen. The Purāṇas in original were in existence before Christ. Ākhyānaiścāpyupākhyānair Gāthābhiḥ Kalpaśuddhibhiḥ / Purāṇasaṁhitāṁ cakre Purāṇārthaviśāradaḥ // [Śloka 15, Chapter 6, Aṁśa 3, Viṣṇu Purāṇa] Aṣṭādaśa Purāṇāni Kṛtvā Satyavatīsutaḥ / Bhāratākhyānamakhilaṁ Cakre tadupabṛṁhaṇam // [Śloka 70, Chapter 53, Matsya Purāṇa] From the above it can be gathered that it was Vyāsa who composed all the Purāṇas. Bāṇa who lived in the seventh century A.D. speaks about Vāyu Purāṇa. Kumārila Bhaṭṭa who lived in the eighth century and Śaṅkarācārya who lived in the ninth century speak about the Purāṇas. Purāṇas must have therefore taken their present forms before the sixth or seventh century A.D. There are eighteen major Purāṇas and another eighteen minor ones. The major Purāṇas contain over four lakhs of Ślokas. All the Purāṇas are in verses like Mahābhārata. But none of them is as good as Mahābhārata as a piece of literature. Still the Purāṇas splendidly reflect the culture of Bhārata. The Purāṇas are the basis of the bulk of Indian thinking on matters social, cultural, religious and political. Even the Indian art has taken form from the Purāṇas. The Purāṇas are classified into three, those pertaining to Brahmā, those pertaining to Viṣṇu and those to Śiva.
2) A. Viṣṇu-based Purānas.
(i) Viṣṇu Purāṇa.
This is one of the most important of all the Purāṇas. This contains the five technical divisions of the Purāṇas. This is divided into six aṁśas. This deals with the events of Vārāhakalpa and contains twentythree thousand ślokas. The theme is the ten incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu. Viṣṇu Purāṇa is the most ancient of all the Purāṇas and has got the name Purāṇaratna (gem of Purāṇas). The method of narration is in the form of teaching his disciple Maitreya by sage Parāśara. Since there is a reference in it to the Maurya dynasty it is to be surmised that this was composed in the first or second century A.D. The narrator himself states thus:-- “Vyāsa an adept in the compositon of Purāṇas composed this Purāṇasaṁhitā with ākhyānas, Upākhyānas, gāthās and Kalpanirṇayas. A Sūta named Romaharṣaṇa was Vyāsa's chief disciple. The broad-minded Vyāsa gave that saṁhitā to that sūta. Romaharṣaṇa had six disciples named Sumati, Agnivarcas, Mitrāyus. Śāṁśapāyana, Akṛtavraṇa, and Sāvarṇi. Of these Akṛtavraṇa, Sāvarṇi and Śāṁśapāyana born in the Kaśyapagotra have composed Purāṇasaṁhitās. There is yet another saṁhitā composed by Romaharṣaṇa which was the basis of the saṁhitās of his three disciples. I have composed Viṣṇupurāṇa basing on the above four saṁhitās.” If a man gives as gift a book of Viṣṇu Purāṇa on the full moon day in the month of āṣāḍha (July) with Jaladhenu he will attain Viṣṇupāda.
(i
i) Bhāgavata Purāṇa.
This is the most popular and widely circulated of all the Purāṇas. It is dear to Viṣṇu-devotees. Divided into twelve Skandhas this contains eighteen thousand ślokas. All the incarnations of Viṣṇu are described in this. The most interesting Skandha is the tenth Skandha in which the author has described the life and activities of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. There was once a belief that it was Baladeva who lived in the thirteenth century A.D. that had composed this Purāṇa. But this belief was smashed when it was found that Vallālasena of Bengal who lived in the eleventh century A.D. had made references to this Purāṇa in some of his works. Bhāgavata accepts Kapila and Buddha as incarnations of Viṣṇu. This has been translated into all Indian languages. This book has to be given as gift on the fullmoon day in the month of Proṣṭhapada (September). Agni Purāṇa instructs that this book is to be given along with a golden image of a lion.
(ii
i) Nāradīya Purāṇa.
This is in the form of a narration by Nārada to Sanatkumāra. In this book of twentyfive thousand verses Nārada teaches the dharmas of Bṛhatkalpa. If this is given as gift on the full-moon day in the month of Āśvina there will be great prosperity.
(i
v) Garuḍa Purāṇa.
This is in the form of instructions to Garuḍa by Viṣṇu. This deals with astronomy, medicine, grammar, and with the structure and qualities of diamonds. This Purāṇa is dear to Vaiṣṇavites. The latter half of this Purāṇa deals with life after death. The Hindus of north-India generally read this Purāṇa while cremating the bodies of the dead. This has given great importance to the origin of Garuḍa. There are eight thousand verses in this book. This book should be given as gift along with an image in gold of a swan to get prosperity.
(v) Padma Purāṇa [Pādma Purāṇa]. This book is divided into six Khaṇḍas comprising fiftyfive thousand verses. The six Khaṇḍas are Sṛṣṭikhaṇḍa, Bhūmikhaṇḍa, Svargakhaṇḍa, Pātālakhaṇḍa, Uttarakhaṇḍa and Kriyāyogasāra. The Uttarakhaṇḍa describes the importance of all months and also the lotus, the seat of Brahmā. This contains the stories of Śakuntalā and Śrī Rāma as described by Kālidāsa in his works Śākuntala and Raghuvaṁśa which has made some believe that this Purāṇa was written after Kālidāsa. If this Purāṇa is given as gift with a cow in the month of Jyeṣṭha (June) it brings prosperity.
(v
i) Varāha Purāṇa.
The mode of narration is in the form of narrating the story by Varāha, the third incarnation of Viṣṇu. The theme is about holy places and mantras. It states that the goddess of earth prayed to Mahāviṣṇu and that prayer took the form of a goddess. This book contains fourteen thousand verses. If one copies down this Purāṇa and gives it as gift along with a golden image of Garuḍa on the full-moon day in the month of Caitra (April) one will attain Viṣṇuloka. B. Purāṇas relating to Brahmā.
(i) Brahma Purāṇa.
This is in the form of teachings by Brahmā to Dakṣa. This contains twentyfive thousand verses. This is called Ādi Purāṇa also. There is a special treatise in this book on Orissa, an ancient holy region of Bhārata. There is in this a special annexure explaining the intimacy between Śiva and Sūrya which is a deviation from other Purāṇas. Brahma Purāṇa states about a sūryakṣetra (sun-temple) situated at a place called Koṇārka near the holy place of Purī, installed there in the year 1241 A.D. If this Purāṇa along with Jaladhenu is given as a gift on the full-moon day in the month of Vaiśākha (May) the donor will attain heaven.
(i
i) Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa.
This deals with the origin of the universe as told by Brahmā. In the beginning there was a golden egg and the prapañca (universe with its activities) was formed out of it. Portions of Adhyātma Rāmāyaṇa, references to Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and the incarnation of Paraśurāma are included in this. This book contains twelve thousand verses and it is believed to be uttama (best) to give this book as a gift to a brahmin.
(ii
i) Brahmavaivarta Purāṇa.
This was instructed to Sāvarṇika by Nārada. The theme is the story of Rathantara. There are four kāṇḍas in this Purāṇa called Brahmakāṇḍa, Prakṛtikāṇḍa, Gaṇeśakāṇḍa and Kṛṣṇajanmakāṇḍa. This deals with Prapañcasṛṣṭi (creation of the universe). It says that Prapañca is nothing but the Vaivartta (transformation) of Brahman. It is considered to be holy to give this book containing eighteen thousand verses as a gift on the full-moon day in the month of Māgha (February).
(i
v) Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa.
This is one of the ancient Purāṇas. There are many stories regarding Indra, Sūrya and Agni in this. This includes a division called Devīmāhātmya containing praises about the goddess Durgā. This contains nine thousand verses and it is considered as uttama (best) to give this book as a gift to a brahmin on a full-moon day in the month of Kārttika (November).
(v) Bhaviṣya Purāṇa.
This is what is told to Manu by Sūrya (Sun). This contains statements about future events. The book praises the worship of Sūrya (Sun), Agni (fire) and Nāga (serpent). There is an annexure dealing with the several holy places of Bhārata and the rights of pilgrims. The book contains fourteen thousand verses and it is considered to be uttama (best) to give this book along with treacle as a gift to a brahmin on the full-moon day in the month of Pauṣa (January).
(v
i) Vāmana Purāṇa.
There is a great similarity between the contents of this Purāṇa and that of Varāha Purāṇa. All the incarnations of Viṣṇu from Vāmana downwards are described in this Purāṇa. The scene of Śiva marrying Pārvatī is vividly described in this book. This Purāṇa contains ten thousand verses and it is considered to be uttama (best) to give this book as a gift in the autumn season or at the time of Viṣuva to a brahmin. C. Purāṇas relating to Śiva.
(i) Vāyu Purāṇa.
This Purāṇa is told by Vāyu. Bāṇabhaṭṭa who lived in the seventh century A.D. makes references to this Purāṇa in his works. There are many references in this Purāṇa about the Gupta Kings who ruled Bhārata in the 4th century A.D. So it is believed that this Purāṇa must have been written in the fifth or sixth century A.D The book contains plenty of verses in praise of Śiva. There are fourteen thousand vers1es in the [Vāyu Purāṇa] and it is considered to be best to give this book as a gift to a brahmin on the full-moon day in the month of Śrāvaṇa (August).
(i
i) Liṅga Purāṇa.
This contains instructions of Śiva on Dharma sitting in the form of liṅga (Phallus). The twentyeight different forms of Śiva are described in this. This contains twelve thousand verses and if this book is given as a gift to a brahmin with tiladhenu on the full-moon day in the month of Phālguna (March) the donor will attain Śivasāyujya.
(ii
i) Skānda Purāṇa.
This Purāṇa is narrated by Skanda. The theme is the slaughter of the demon Tārakāsura by Skanda (Subrahmaṇya). There is a great similarity between this Purāṇa and the Kumārasambhava of Kālidāsa. There are eightyfour thousand verses in this Purāṇa and giving this book as a gift is thought to be good.
(i
v) Agni Purāṇa.
This Purāṇa was instructed to the sage Vasiṣṭha by Agnideva. There are several references in this to Śivaliṅga and Durgādevī. The incarnations of Rāma and Kṛṣṇa are also dealt with in this. Distinct from other Purāṇas this book deals with arts and science like Kavyālaṅkāranāṭakas (Poems, dramas, figures of speech), Jyotiśsāstra (Astronomy) and Śilpakalā (architecture). This Purāṇa contains twelve thousand verses and is capable of imparting knowledge on all arts and sciences.
(v) Matsya Purāṇa.
This Purāṇa was taught to Manu by Matsya, the incarnation of Viṣṇu, The incarnation of Matsya is dealt in this. Several subjects like Jainamata (religion of Jainism), Buddhamata (Buddhism), Nāṭyaśāstra (histrionics) and Āndhrarājavaṁsa (kingdom and Kings of Āndhra) are discussed in this book. The book contains thirteen thousand verses and this is to be given as gift along with a golden image of a fish at the time of Viṣuva.
(v
i) Kūrma Purāṇa.
This Purāṇa is taught by Kūrmamūrti (incarnation of Viṣṇu as Kūrma (tortoise) while narrating the story of Indradyumna at Pātāla. All the seven islands and seven oceans are described in this book. Bhārata is situated in the centre of all these and is called Jambūdvīpa. Though it is believed that there were four saṁhitās for this, only the Brāhmasaṁhitā is available now. It includes Īśvaragītā and Vyāsagītā. The book contains eight thousand verses and is to be given as gift along with a golden image of tortoise.
3) Upapurāṇas.
There are eighteen minor Purāṇas besides the eighteen major ones. They are:--
(1) Sanatkumāra
(2) Nārasiṁha
(3) Nāradīya
(4) Śiva
(5) Durvāsas
(6) Kāpila
(7) Mānava
(8) Uśanas
(9) Vāruṇa
(10) Kālika
(11) Sāmba
(12) Saura
(13) Āditya
(14) Māheśvara
(15) Devībhāgavata
(16) Vāsiṣṭha
(17) Viṣṇudharmottara
(18) Nīlamata Purāṇa. The two Upapurāṇas mentioned lastly are associated with Kashmir. The first is about the Vaiṣṇava religion there and the second about the wise saying of a Nāga King of the place called Nīla. (Purāṇas; History of Sanskrit Literature).

Aryabhushan School Dictionary | mr  en |   | 
  Old or ancient.
  A Pura'n or sacred and poetical work. पु० सोडणें-लावणें To begin a long and tiresome story.
पुराणांतली वांगी पुराणांत राहिलीं   Said of one mighty in talk, slack in act.

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